They are emitted in many radioactive decays and may be very penetrating, so require more substantial shielding.Gamma rays are the main hazard to people dealing with sealed radioactive materials used, for example, in industrial gauges and radiotherapy machines.Radiation dose badges are worn by workers in exposed situations to detect them and hence monitor exposure.
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Fast neutrons can be very destructive to human tissue.
Neutrons are the only type of radiation which can make other, non-radioactive materials, become radioactive.
They comprise about one-tenth of natural background exposure at sea level, and more at high altitudes.
Neutrons are uncharged particles mostly released by nuclear fission (the splitting of atoms in a nuclear reactor), and hence are seldom encountered outside the core of a nuclear reactor.* Thus they are not normally a problem outside nuclear plants.
Beta-radioactive substances are also safe if kept in appropriate sealed containers.
These are high-energy electromagnetic waves much the same as X-rays.
In fact, the greatest exposure is caused by natural sources ever present in the environment, and the major contributor to exposure from artificial sources is the use of radiation in medicine worldwide.” Nuclear radiation arises from hundreds of different kinds of unstable atoms.
While many exist in nature, the majority are created in nuclear reactions.
Many scientists then undertook study of these, and especially their medical applications.