From 1867 to 1877, Tucson was the capital of the Arizona Territory.
Tucson was incorporated in 1877, making it the oldest incorporated city in Arizona.
Towns outside the Tucson metro area include Benson to the southeast, Catalina and Oracle to the north, and Green Valley to the south.
The Spanish name of the city, Tucsón Tucson was probably first visited by Paleo-Indians, known to have been in southern Arizona about 12,000 years ago.
In 1890, Asians made up 4.2% of the city's population. The population increased gradually to 13,913 in 1910. Many veterans who had been gassed in World War I and were in need of respiratory therapy began coming to Tucson after the war, due to the clean dry air.
Over the following years the city continued to grow, with the population increasing to 20,292 in 1920 and 36,818 in 1940.
Recent archaeological excavations near the Santa Cruz River have located a village site dating from 2100 BC.
The floodplain of the Santa Cruz River was extensively farmed during the Early Agricultural Period, circa 1200 BC to AD 150.
In 2006 the population of Pima County, in which Tucson is located, passed one million while the City of Tucson's population was 535,000.
In 1912, when Arizona statehood became reality, the total number of different flags that had flown over Tucson now numbered five: American, Spanish, Mexican, Confederate, and the State of Arizona.
Brazelton held up two stages in the summer of 1878 near Point of Mountain Station approximately 17 mi (27 km) northwest of Tucson. to send special agent and future Pima County sheriff Bob Paul to investigate.