Lady Justice, a goddess symbolising justice who bears a sword – symbolising the coercive power of a tribunal –, scales – representing an objective standard by which competing claims are weighed – and a blindfold indicating that justice should be impartial and meted out objectively, without fear or favor and regardless of money, wealth, power or identity.
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This partly reflected Germany's status as a rising power in the late 19th century.
Similarly, traditional Chinese law gave way to westernisation towards the final years of the Qing Dynasty in the form of six private law codes based mainly on the Japanese model of German law.
However, today there are signs that civil and common law are converging.
Ancient India and China represent distinct traditions of law, and have historically had independent schools of legal theory and practice.
The Arthashastra, probably compiled around 100 AD (although it contains older material), and the Manusmriti (c.
100–300 AD) were foundational treatises in India, and comprise texts considered authoritative legal guidance.
The Law Merchant, a precursor to modern commercial law, emphasised the freedom to contract and alienability of property.
As nationalism grew in the 18th and 19th centuries, the Law Merchant was incorporated into countries' local law under new civil codes.
However, Athens had no legal science or single word for "law", Although codes were replaced by custom and case law during the Dark Ages, Roman law was rediscovered around the 11th century when medieval legal scholars began to research Roman codes and adapt their concepts.