In 1883 William Henry Baker and his partners started the Ithaca Gun Company, making shotguns.
The original factory was located in the Fall Creek neighborhood of the city, on a slope later known as Gun Hill, where the nearby waterfall supplied the main source of energy for the plant.
In 1790, the federal government and state began an official program to grant land in the area, known as the Central New York Military Tract, as payment for service to the American soldiers of the Revolutionary War, as the government was cash poor.
It was re-engineered with switchbacks in the late 1840s; much of this route in the late 20th century was converted to trails under the Rails to Trails program; it is used by the South Hill Recreation Way.
However, easier railroad routes were constructed, such as that of the Syracuse, Binghamton & New York (1854).
Similarly, the Tuscarora people, an Iroquoian-speaking tribe from the Carolinas, migrated after defeat in the Yamasee War; they settled with the Oneida people and became the sixth nation of the Haudenosaunee, with chiefs stating the migration was complete in 1722.
During the Revolutionary War, four of the then six Iroquois nations were allied with the British, although bands made decisions on fighting in a highly decentralized way.
Conflict with the rebel colonists was fierce throughout the Mohawk Valley and western New York.
In retaliation for conflicts to the east, the 1779 Sullivan Expedition was conducted against the Iroquois peoples in the west of the state, destroying more than 40 villages and stored winter crops.
Dependent tributaries of the Cayuga, they had been permitted to settle on the tribe's hunting lands at the south end of Cayuga Lake, as well as in Pony (originally Sapony) Hollow of what is known as present-day Newfield, New York.
Remnants of these tribes had been forced from North Carolina by tribal conflicts and European colonial encroachment.
The first frame house was erected in 1800 by Abram Markle.
In 1821, the village was incorporated at the same time the Town of Ithaca was organized and separated from the parent Town of Ulysses.
The state sold off the former Iroquois lands to stimulate development and settlement by European Americans; lands were also granted as payment to veterans of the war.